Showing posts with label KAATSU Specialist. Show all posts
Showing posts with label KAATSU Specialist. Show all posts

Monday, February 3, 2020

KAATSU Specialist Series: Introduction To The KAATSU Cycle

For who? Baby Boomers, retirees, competitive athletes, KAATSU Specialists
For what? Strength, stamina, functional movement, mobility, flexibility, recovery






























When many people first hear about and become interested in KAATSU, they Google "KAATSU". The resultant Google search often lists many BFR (Blood Flow Restriction) products.

It is reasonable for most of these individuals to equate KAATSU with BFR and vice versa - because KAATSU is the original BFR.

"One way to get around this confusion is to input the Japanese symbols for KAATSU which is 加圧 - or for KAATSU Training which is 加圧トレーニング," advises Steven Munatones. "But inputting Japanese kanji characters on an English keyboard or on their smartphone is difficult or impossible for most people. So the best way to find out correct and non-misleading information about KAATSU is to go directly to the KAATSU website (www.kaatsu-global.com) or blog (www.kaatsublog.com) or any of its social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or Instagram.

While the information is entirely in Japanese, others can review the original KAATSU website: www.kaatsu.com. Interested consumers can also copy-and-paste 加圧 - or 加圧トレーニング (Japanese for KAATSU Training) into YouTube and there will be plenty of videos and explanations about KAATSU
."

Some of the questions that BFR users send into the KAATSU website include the following:

Q1. Owens Recovery Science sells PTS Personalized Tourniquet System for Blood Flow Restriction and talks about limb occlusion pressure. Why doesn't KAATSU go to full occlusion or restrict blood flow to the degree recommended by BFR advocates?

A1. The reason why KAATSU does not use full occlusion as a standard to perform BFR is because we do not believe it is necessary or optimally effective for most individuals. KAATSU equipment was designed based on 10 years of working with hundreds of cardiac rehabilitation patients per year (i.e., those who dealt with strokes, heart attacks, heart bypass surgery) at the University of Tokyo Hospital under the guidance of experienced cardiologists. This is where the KAATSU equipment design and protocols were tested and researched - under the guidance of cardiologists and Dr. Yoshiaki Sato using MRI, ultrasound, and blood analyses with mass spectrometers. After a decade of testing and research comparing everything from partial to full occlusion and various degrees of modifying venous flow, we believe KAATSU equipment and protocols are optimally designed; we based this on thousands of sessions with thousands of subjects (patients) in controlled setting where many parameters were accurately measured, compared and tested. The modification of venous flow does not needs to be extreme [see image above] in order to serve as the catalyst for significant hormonal secretion and metabolite production that is optimal for recovery, rehabilitation and athletic performance.

Q2. Other BFR products are FDA approved. Is KAATSU FDA approved?

A2. While some companies make claims or infers its own products are FDA approved, this is not true. KAATSU equipment has also not submitted documentation for FDA clearance, but neither have other BFR companies as of 2019. FDA registration of equipment is not the equivalent of FDA approval. FDA registration is a relatively easy process that does have the same medical, scientific or legal meaning as FDA clearance (or FDA approval in common vernacular).

Q3. Other BFR products have Doppler devices. Why doesn't KAATSU have a Doppler device?

A3. The Doppler devices that KAATSU used were used during its research phase, but since arterial flow is not occluded and venous flow is only slightly modified, there is absolutely no need for use of a Doppler device with KAATSU equipment. The only time that the Doppler was used was with KAATSU was during the research and testing phase of KAATSU where experienced technicians and cardiologists were studying the effects of KAATSU. In contrast, it is logical that a Doppler device is necessary when there is full occlusion or anything near this degree of pressure with BFR devices. The use of Doppler is necessary in these cases with BFR - when the user is doing easy stretching or vigorous aerobic movements, is an active teenager or a sedentary Baby Boomer, or takes myriad medications.

Q4. What is the difference between arterial flow and venous flow?

A4. Arterial flow is the blood flow from the torso into the limbs (arm and legs) via arteries. Venous flow is the blood flow back to the torso from the limbs (arm and legs) via veins.

The heart is the driver of the circulatory system, pumping blood through rhythmic contraction and relaxation. The rate of blood flow out of the heart (often expressed in L/min) is known as the cardiac output.

Blood being pumped out of the heart first enters the aorta, the largest artery of the body.

It then proceeds to divide into smaller and smaller arteries, then into arterioles, and eventually capillaries, where oxygen transfer occurs. The capillaries connect to venules, and the blood then travels back through the network of veins to the right heart. The microcirculation (via the arterioles, capillaries, and venules) constitutes most of the area of the vascular system and is the site of the transfer of O2, glucose, and enzyme substrates into the cells. The venous system returns the de-oxygenated blood to the right heart where it is pumped into the lungs to become oxygenated and CO2 and other gaseous wastes exchanged and expelled during breathing. Blood then returns to the left side of the heart where it begins the process again.


Q5. Wider cuffs are always used with BFR products, but KAATSU uses flexible, elastic, pneumatic thin air bladders that is said to cause nerve damage. Is that true?

A5. That is an absolutely false claim. If the Department of Defense, the Department of Veteran Affairs, many universities and hospitals, and professional and Olympic athletes regularly use KAATSU, there is no possibility of approving KAATSU equipment or using KAATSU protocols if there were any risk of nerve damage - or other misleading claims made by BFR advocates. KAATSU equipment is being used many people over the age of 50 - up to 104 years old. The KAATSU equipment's primary feature is the Cycle mode which automatically shuts off after 4 minutes and allows for deflation every 30 seconds. These protocols are based on the decades of research and testing under the supervision of physicians of various disciplines and researchers with PhD who are under the obligation to report any untoward issue during their KAATSU research.

It should be noted that wide tourniquets and wide blood pressure cuffs are not properly used with the KAATSU equipment. KAATSU equipment is strictly limited to use with the patented, proprietary elastic, flexible pneumatic air bands. Using wide tourniquets with KAATSU equipment would be an intentional misuse of the KAATSU equipment. The pneumatic KAATSU bands serve to stimulate the optimal hormonal and metabolite response in the human body.


Q6. When should the KAATSU Cycle be used? When should the KAATSU Constnat mode be used?

A6. As with tactical athletes (i.e., soldiers and special operators in the US military), collegiate athletes and professional athletes, we recommend that KAATSU Cycles are repeatedly used both before and after every workout and competition as well as during every workout (as possible). If there is a problem with insomnia or travel that requires crossing time zones, then the KAATSU Cycle is also best used within an hour of bedtime.

The KAATSU Cycle can be used every day whether you are at your home, traveling on business, or heading to a competition. Athletes, corporate executives, special operators in the military, and aging Baby Boomers can use KAATSU effectively no matter where they are: in the office, at home or during travel.


Q7. Does KAATSU equipment change pressure with increased hypertrophy?

A7. KAATSU equipment changes pressure upon movement by the limb in real time, it changes with hypertrophy, and it changes slightly and gradually every 30 seconds depending on what parameter you set.

Q8. As KAATSU increases the elasticity of the vascular system, muscle tissue tends to build more easily and rapidly regardless of the individual. So how do you perform KAATSU without building excess muscle mass?

A8. Because KAATSU inventor Dr. Sato was a bodybuilder in his youth, building muscle was important to him. Many (or most?) current online references to KAATSU and BFR refer to muscle building, but this one outcome is just one of myriad possible outcomes. Because many young(er) men post information about BFR with the goal of building the muscles of their upper body (note: it is only occasionally about building lower body strength or girth), the Internet is overflowing with BFR experts talking about muscle building with BFR.

But muscle building is only one of the many goals of KAATSU. What can be seen online vis-a-vis KAATSU is very incomplete and only tells a small sliver of KAATSU outcomes. In 1973, Dr. Sato got injured and broke his ankle and he realized the additional - and in many ways - the most important aspects of KAATSU: rehabilitation and recovery.

Rapid rehabilitation from injuries to bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons, and recovery from surgeries and accidents are critical outcomes for many. The use of the KAATSU Cycle is essential to achieving these outcomes.

Also, KAATSU is ultimately more beneficial because one of its primary benefits is increasing vascular elasticity. For any aerobic athlete (e.g., skiers, runners, swimmers, rowers, triathletes), or weight-based athletes (e.g., wrestlers, boxers, MMA fighters, powerlifters, martial artists), this increased vascular elasticity helps in 3 primary ways:

1. Improvement in stamina because the delivery of arterial blood to the working muscles is improved and made more effective) and the return of venous flow from the working muscles enables a faster dissolution of lactic acid.
2. Improvement in power output (however that is measured in a variety of sports) because the working muscles are more efficient with increased vascular elasticity, especially at the capillary level.
3. Recovery from vigorous workouts enable increased performance in training over the long run.

For injured individuals, the hormonal and metabolite production and improved vascular elasticity are the goals of KAATSU - not muscle-building.

But even with a healthy, young athlete or an older woman recovering from surgery, there is no need for them to build muscle mass with KAATSU if they do not want. KAATSU users can stretch and do specific athletic or therapeutic movements with KAATSU in order to get better - without increasing mass.

They do not need to lift weights or do strength-building exercises with KAATSU - this WILL increase their muscle mass and tone. The KAATSU Cycle enables athletes or those recovering to become more powerful in their movements without the addition of adding muscle mass.


Q9. How do you properly size the KAATSU Air Bands?

A9. Below shows proper sizing of the KAATSU Air Bands for the arms and legs:

Arms:
Small: circumference of upper arm is less than 11.5 inches (29 cm)
Medium: circumference of upper arm is between 11.5 -14 inches (29-35 cm)
Large: circumference of upper arm is between 14 - 16.5 inches (35-42 cm)
Extra Large: circumference of upper arm is between 16.5 - 21 inches (42-54 cm)

Legs:
Small: circumference of upper leg less than 16 inches (40 cm)
Medium: circumference of upper leg is between 16 - 21 inches (40-53 cm)
Large: circumference of upper leg is between 21-26 inches (53-66 cm)
Extra Large: circumference of upper leg is between 26-32 inches (66-81 cm)

To measure your arms, measure the girth above your biceps just below the deltoids. To measure your legs, sit on the edge of a chair and measure the girth as high in the groin as possible.


Q10. What is the best way to use the KAATSU Cycle 2.0?

A10. You can use the KAATSU Cycle 2.0 unit for both the KAATSU Cycle mode and the KAATSU Constant mode. The KAATSU Cycle mode is an 8-stage series of 30 seconds of inflation of the KAATSU Air Bands followed by 5 seconds of deflation of the KAATSU Air Bands. At each stage, the inflated pressure is slightly higher (by 10 SKU). The duration of this 8-stage series of pressure-on and pressure-off is 4 minutes of total pressure.

The physiologic mechanism of the pressure-on and pressure-off is essential to KAATSU.

You can repeat the KAATSU Cycle of 8 stages as you wish up to 6 times.

There are 6 pre-set pressure levels on the KAATSU Cycle 2.0 [shown below]. The lowest pressures are selected by pressing the G (GROUP) button on the front face of the KAATSU Cycle 2.0 unit. The highest pressures are selected by pressing the P (PRO) button on the top side of the KAATSU Cycle 2.0 unit.

Within the G and P levels, there are also L (LOW), M (MEDIUM) and H (HIGH) pressure settings.

So the lowest possible pressure is GROUP LOW (represented by GL). It is followed by GROUP MEDIUM (represented by GM), GROUP HIGH (represented by GH), PRO LOW (represented by PL), PRO MEDIUM (represented by PM), and PRO HIGH (represented by PH).




































As the KAATSU Cycle 2.0 unit is working, there are a series of letters and numbers shown on the LED display screen:
* GL1 means GROUP LOW setting on the 1st stage
* GM2 means GROUP MEDIUM setting on the 2nd stage
* GH3 means GROUP HIGH setting on the 3rd stage
* PL4 means PRO LOW setting on the 4th stage
* PM5 means PRO MEDIUM setting on the 5th stage
* PH6 means PRO HIGH setting on the 6th stage
* after the 8th stage has been completed, the unit automatically shuts off

You can repeat the same setting - or increase or decrease the pressure settings as you see fit.

The most highly recommended protocol is to start on GROUP LOW and then proceed gradually upwards on the pressure setting levels. Some users go all the way up to PRO HIGH level, but this level is not for everyone.

Any workout or movements (outside a pool) can be done in the KAATSU Cycle mode.


Q11. What if I would like to do the KAATSU Constant mode?

A11. If you would like to do the KAATSU Constant mode, then untether (i.e., disconnect) the translucent connector tubes after you have inflated the KAATSU Air Bands. You should limit your use of the KAATSU Constant mode to no more than 10 minutes.

Q12. How do I switch from the KAATSU Cycle mode to the KAATSU Constant mode - and vice versa?

A12. Put the unit in the neutral position (where neither the GROUP or PRO buttons are lit). Only the center button (ON/OFF button) should be lit. From this neutral position, press the LOW button on the top side of the unit for 3 seconds. The LED display should automatically change from CYCLE to TRAINING.

The TRAINING mode is pre-set to 200 SKU. You can change this pre-setting upwards or downwards as you see fit. If you press the GROUP button once, you will decrease the pre-set of 200 SKU by 10 SKU (to 190). If you press the GROUP button two times, you will decrease the pre-set of 200 SKU by 20 SKU (to 180). Each press decreases the SKU by 10.

Conversely, if you press the PRO button once, you will increase the pre-set of 200 SKU by 10 SKU (to 200). If you press the PRO button two times, you will increase the pre-set of 200 SKU by 20 SKU (to 220). Each press increases the SKU by 10.

The maximum SKU level is 400 SKU.

When you would like to switch back from the KAATSU Training mode to the KAATSU Cycle mode, press the LOW button again when the front face buttons are in the neutral position.


Q13. Can I do KAATSU more than twice per week?

A13. Yes, you can do the KAATSU Cycle mode up to twice daily. The more KAATSU Cycles you do, generally the faster you will rehabilitate and the greater your vascular elasticity will become.

Copyright © 2014 - 2020 by KAATSU Global

Friday, July 8, 2016

KAATSU Training By Older Users



Samuel Amorim, the first KAATSU Specialist of KAATSU Brasil, is doing a wonderful job in Brazil, especially among older patients doing KAATSU Cycle and KAATSU Training. Amorim initially warms up his clients and patients with the KAATSU Cycle while they are sitting and stretching. Then, they do a variety of exercises following the standard KAATSU protocols with resistance bands.

Additional KAATSU Brasil activities are posted on both Facebook and Instagram.

Copyright © 2014 - 2016 by KAATSU Global

Saturday, August 22, 2015

How Do You Find The Optimal KAATSU Pressure?








































Identifying the appropriate KAATSU pressure (measured in SKU or Standard KAATSU Units) is a combination of the following:

*Level 1: Selecting the appropriate KAATSU Air Band size: small, medium or large
*Level 2: Selecting the appropriate Base SKU or manually tightening of the KAATSU Air Bands
*Level 3: Identifying the appropriate Optimal SKU or inflating the KAATSU Air Bands

LEVEL ONE:
The KAATSU Air Bands are available in 3 sizes: Small, Medium and Large.

The KAATSU Specialist should measure the circumference of the top of the arm (right under your armpit) and the circumference of the top of the leg (right alongside the groin). Those circumferences will determine the appropriate size for the KAATSU Air Bands.

ARMS
Small: 18 〜 28 cm (7.06 〜 11.02 inches)
Medium: 28 〜 38 cm (11.02 〜 14.96 inches)
Large: 38 〜 48 cm (14.96 〜 18.89 inches)
LEGS
Small: 40 〜 50 cm (15.74 〜 19.68 inches)
Medium: 50 〜 60 cm (19.68 〜 23.62 inches)
Large: 60 〜 70 cm (23.62 〜 27.55 inches)

If the KAATSU user exceeds 48 cm in circumference on their upper arms or 70 cm in circumference on their upper legs, then special order ("sumo size") KAATSU Air Bands are recommended.

LEVEL TWO:
After millions of KAATSU sessions in Japan, these are the basic guidelines for the Base SKU primarily based on age and general physical fitness. Of course, there are always individual exceptions, but these guidelines have proven safe and effective over the decades and among hundreds of thousands of users of all ages, abilities and physical abilities:

The Base SKU is the pressure after manually tightening the KAATSU Air Bands on the upper arms or upper legs. The pressure in SKU can be manually adjusted by either tightening or loosening the bands as appropriate.

There should be no numbness or whiteness in the limbs at all. Numbness may result in an inappropriate placing of the Air Bands where the bands may be pressuring against a nerve. Whiteness or an unnatural paleness in the limbs is due to occluding or cutting off the arterial flow - and this should be avoided at all times.

Recommended Base SKU for Arms on the KAATSU Master:
*10-20 SKU for older and middle age adults with less-than-average level of fitness
*20-30 SKU for older and middle age adults with an average level of fitness
*30-40 SKU for young and middle age adults with a good level of fitness
*40-50 SKU for teenagers, young adults and adults with a high level of fitness
*50+ SKU for elite athletes or those with extraordinarily high levels of fitness

Recommended Base SKU for Legs on the KAATSU Master:
*20-30 SKU for older and middle age adults with less-than-average level of fitness
*30-40 SKU for older and middle age adults with an average level of fitness
*40-50 SKU for teenagers, young adults and adults with a high level of fitness
*50-60 SKU for elite athletes or those with extraordinarily high levels of fitness

Recommended Base SKU for Arms on the KAATSU Nano:
*Less than 10 SKU for older and middle age adults with less-than-average level of fitness
*10-15 SKU for older and middle age adults with an average level of fitness
*15-20 SKU for young and middle age adults with a good level of fitness
*20-25 SKU for teenagers, young adults and adults with a high level of fitness
*25+ SKU for elite athletes or those with extraordinarily high levels of fitness

Recommended Base SKU for Legs on the KAATSU Nano:
*10-15 SKU for older and middle age adults with less-than-average level of fitness
*15-20 SKU for older and middle age adults with an average level of fitness
*20-25 SKU for teenagers, young adults and adults with a high level of fitness
*25-30 SKU for elite athletes or those with extraordinarily high levels of fitness

The recommended Base SKUs on the KAATSU Master and KAATSU Nano are different because the size of the compressors in each of these units.

A "KAATSU Color" should result when the appropriate Base SKU is applied. That is, a pinkness or rosiness in most individuals or a beefy redness for active adults or athletes will result in the palms of the hands or quadriceps on the legs.

LEVEL THREE:
After the Base SKU is applied by manually tightening the KAATSU Air Bands, the bands are gradually inflated to the Optimal SKU.

This process will take 5-10 minutes to do properly and may take 2-3 sessions to get precisely right.

On the arms, start inflating the bands to a level of 100 SKU. On the legs, start inflating the bands to a level of 150 SKU. Ask the user if (1) they are comfortable, (2) they feel any numbness, and (3) they can feel their pulsation under the bands while the KAATSU Specialist checks their Capillary Refill Time.

If the user is comfortable and without numbness, check their Capillary Refill by firmly pressing your thumb into the palm of their hands or their quadriceps muscle above their knee. Release and see how quickly the blanched (white) area returns to normal color. If this Capillary Refill Time is less than 3 seconds, this is safe. If this Capillary Refill Time is more than 3 seconds, then the Air Bands are inflated too tightly and should be immediately released.

The KAATSU Specialist asks the user if they can feel any pulsation under the bands. If the user cannot feel any pulsation, release the pressure and increase the SKU by 10 SKU for the arms and by 20 SKU for the legs.

At the increased SKU pressure (e.g., 110 SKU on the arms or 120 SKU on the legs), the KAATSU Specialist repeats this process and questioning: (1) Are you comfortable? (2) Do you feel any numbness? (3) Do you feel a pulsation under the bands?

The user may or may not feel any pulsation under the bands at low pressures. In that case, the KAATSU Specialist continues to increase the SKU pressure by increments of 10 SKU in the arms and 20 SKU in the legs.

This process continues until the user feels a strong pulsation under the bands. At the point where the pulsation begins to feel weaker, then the bands have been inflated too much. That is, if there is a strong sense of pulsation at 200 SKU, but there is a less strong sense of pulsation at 210 SKU, then the appropriate SKU pressure is 200 SKU.

To confirm that this initial Optimal SKU pressure is appropriate, do a series of KAATSU 3-point Exercises for both the arms and legs. The KAATSU 3-point Exercises for the arms involves 3 sets of hand clenches, bicep curls and tricep extensions. The KAATSU 3-point Exercises for the legs involves toe curls, toe raises, and heel raises (or for more fit individuals, heel raises, leg curls and squats).

During the 3 sets of these exercises, the KAATSU Specialist asks the user to do a set of 25-30 repetitions of each exercise (hand clenches, bicep curls and tricep extensions or heel raises, leg curls and squats).

If the user can do 3 sets of 25-30 repetitions of each exercise without going to failure, then the Optimal SKU pressure is too low. However, if the user can only do a decreasing amount of repetitions of each exercise before going to failure, then the Optimal SKU pressure is appropriate.

For example, if the user can only do 30 bicep curls on the first set, 22 repetitions on the second set, and only 15 repetitions on the third set before becoming fatigued, then the Base SKU and Optimal SKU pressures are appropriate.

Individuals of all ages and abilities will find that they will be able to accommodate, acclimate and adapt to increasing Optimal SKU pressures rather quickly between their first KAATSU and subsequent KAATSU sessions.

In summary, there are some important points to remember:

* The higher the Base SKU, the lower the Optimal SKU will be. It is the combination of the Base SKU and the Optimal SKU that is the critical pressure.
* There can and will be daily variations of up to +/- 20-30 SKU in the same individual.
* The anticipated Optimal Pressure is primarily a function of age, fitness and limb circumference.

Regarding age, the highest pressures generally occur between ages 20-30 and decrease for younger and older individuals. Dr Jim Stray-Gundersen, the Chief Medical Officer of KAATSU Global, explains, "There is an overlay of 'physiologic' age that modifies the chronological age. That is, with the elderly who may have stiff, damaged arteries, use relatively low pressures."

Regarding relative fitness, the fitter the subject is, the higher the optimal pressure from the same base pressure will be.

Regarding limb circumference/cross sectional area, the bigger the extremity is, the higher the pressure will be. So arm pressures are typically 50-100 SKUs lower than leg pressures. Also, if an individual has the more muscle versus fat in the extremity, they will generally be able to handle higher pressures.

As Dr Stray-Gundersen recommends, "Keep in mind what one is trying to do with KAATSU is find the optimal amount of venous outflow impediment so that otherwise easy exercises become unsustainable."

Copyright © 2015 by KAATSU Global

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

What Happens When You Max Out On The KAATSU?

Situation: Occasionally, a KAATSU client maxes out on the KAATSU Nano at 400 SKU (Standard KAATSU Unit). That is, their Optimal Pressure reaches 400 SKU and they cannot go higher (i.e., apply more pressure).

In these limited cases, the KAATSU clients feel that they can safely apply more pressure and workout at a higher pressure. But the maximum SKU on the KAATSU Nano is 400 SKU, so they max out.

What should they do?

There is a simple solution in these limited cases.

Short Answer: Deflate, manually re-tighten Air Bands as a higher Base pressure, and try again.

Long Answer: KAATSU is based on two different pressures: the Base SKU and the Optimal SKU. The Base SKU is the pressure applied when the Air Bands are manually tightened on the limbs as the first step. Quite often, this Base SKU is not optimally set and is too loose - especially if a finger or two can be put in-between the Air Bands and the skin of the client.

It is vitally important to initially tighten the Air Bands so the Base SKU is in the appropriate range for the clients. These ranges are dependent upon the clients' age, physical condition and experience with KAATSU, but on the KAATSU Nano, these are the general guidelines:

* Below 10 Base SKU: for very weak or elderly patients first doing KAATSU
* 10-15 Base SKU: for weak individuals or elderly individuals with KAATSU experience
* 15-20 Base SKU: for middle-age or semi-active individuals with KAATSU experience
* 20-25 Base SKU: for younger or active individuals with KAATSU experience
* Above 25 Base SKU: for athletes in good physical condition

In some very limited cases among extremely fit athletes with sufficient KAATSU experience, the Base SKU can be north of 30 as long as the capillary refill time is within 3 seconds and there is no numbness or whiteness in the limbs.

For the KAATSU Master, the general guidelines are as follows:

* Below 20 Base SKU: for very weak or elderly patients first doing KAATSU
* 20-30 Base SKU: for weak individuals or elderly individuals with KAATSU experience
* 30-40 Base SKU: for middle-age or semi-active individuals with KAATSU experience
* 40-50 Base SKU: for younger or active individuals with KAATSU experience
* Above 50 Base SKU: for super athletes in great physical condition

In some very limited cases among extremely fit athletes with sufficient KAATSU experience, the Base SKU can be north of 55 as long as the capillary refill time is within 3 seconds and there is no numbness or whiteness in the limbs.

Copyright © 2015 by KAATSU Global