Saturday, March 14, 2020

China Institute of Sport Science KAATSU Research

























In order to develop and promote the science and technology of athletics within China, the China Institute of Sport Science researches scientific and technological issues in fitness, athletic competitiveness, and sport engineering and technology.

KAATSU inventor Dr. Yoshiaki Sato published a paper with Doctors Y. Chang, T. Yu, JP Liu, XL Gao, J. Zhang, and F. Wang at the China Institute of Sport Science in September 2014 called Effects of KAATSU Training on Human Mitochondria-related Factors and Comprehensive Effects on Cardiovascular System.

The objective of their research was to develop an understanding of KAATSU on mitochondria metabolism and investigate its comprehensive influences on the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular indexes, metabolism indicators, inflammatory cytokines, and mitochondria-related factors such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), nitric oxide (NO), and other relevant factors were studied in this study.

With this information, the China Institute of Sport Science can better understand the positive effects of KAATSU on the cardiovascular system, explore energy metabolism after KAATSU from the organelles level, and provide the possibility to improve cardiovascular quality.

They randomly divided 40 healthy adults into a control group (no KAATSU) and experimental group (KAATSU) for 8 weeks. The subjects’ level of body composition and the anaerobic power of their lower extremities were measured by a body composition analyzer and the Wingate method. The endothelium-derived relaxing factor (NO, VEGF) and mitochondrial-related factors (AMPK, SOD, LPL and PDK4) were determined by the ELISA method. Routine blood tests and glucose and lipid from blood were analyzed before and after KAATSU.

The subjects used light dumbbells to perform 3 sets of biceps curls to muscular fatigue.

They found the following:

1. As compared with the control group, the experimental group decreased their maximum heart rate after KAATSU.
2. As compared with the control group, the plasma VEFG in the experimental group significantly increased (P<0.05).
3. After 8 weeks of KAATSU, the plasma LPL (P<0.05) and PDK4 (P<0.01) in the experimental group significantly increased.
4. As compared with the control group, the average values of serum total cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05).
5. After 8 weeks of KAATSU, the peak of upper limb anaerobic power frequency laps significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, there were significant increases in the peak and the relative peak of upper limb anaerobic power (P<0.01).
6. After 8 weeks of KAATSU, the average value of blood lactic acid significantly increased in both the control group and experimental group.
7. After 8 weeks of KAATSU, the average body age (P<0.01), BMI, body fat percentage in the experimental group significantly decreased (P<0.05).
8. After 8 weeks of KAATSU, the average relaxed upper arm girth (P<0.05) and thigh girth (P<0.01) significantly increased.

The researchers concluded the following:

1. The experimental group significantly reduced body weight, BMI and body fat percentage that benefitted optimization of body composition, controlling body weight, and prevention of obesity.
2. The experimental group increased the secretion of vascular endothelial group factor (VEGF) and NO that benefitted promotion of the vascular tone and improvement of the endothelial function.
3. In term of lipid metabolism, after 8 weeks of KAATSU, the average value of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride significantly decreased while the plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK4) synergistic increased which promotes fat decomposition. This infers that KAATSU could improve blood lipid metabolic disorders and prevent cardiovascular disease.
4. There was no significant difference in AMPK expression between the experimental group and control group, maybe KAATSU did not activate PGC-1a signaling by increasing AMPK. It also provided some experimental evidence for further research on the perspective of mitochondrial Akt/mTOR signaling.
5. The 8 weeks of KAATSU could increase the upper anaerobic power peak and anaerobic power relative peak, benefitted to promoting human upper limb muscle explosiveness and speed endurance. Meanwhile, resistance training could significantly improve the body’s tolerance to lactic acid and enhance the ability of anaerobic metabolism.
6. Inflammatory factors such as high-sensitivity c-reactive, IL-6, TNF-a were very close to each other before training. It showed that KAATSU did not cause a surge of inflammatory cytokines and the emergency of muscle injury, but the result of this study could not confirm the mechanism of muscle thickening caused by increasing IL-6.

Table 1. Resting Heart Rate with pre and post resistance training
Resting heart rate (beats per minute)
Pre: 82.1 ± 12.0 Post: 80.3 ± 13.7 N: 7

Table 2. Resting Heart Rate with pre and post KAATSU training
Resting heart rate (beats per minute)
Pre: 85.0 ± 14.42 Post: 83.25 ± 10.74 N: 8

Table 3. Resting Heart Rate compared with Control Group and KAATSU Group
Resting heart rate (beats per minute)
Control Group pre/post: 7.57 ± 3.1 N: 7
Resting heart rate (beats per minute)
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.43 ± 8.24 N: 8

Table 4. Heart Rate with pre and post anaerobic exercise of upper extremities in Control Group
Resting heart rate
Pre: 113.9 ± 15.2 Post: 105.3 ± 14.0 N: 7
Instant heart rate
Pre: 183.9 ± 6.7 Post: 188.3 ± 17.4 N: 7
Maximum heart rate
Pre: 184.9 ± 6.7 Post: 189.0 ± 17.0 N: 7
1 minute post heart rate
Pre: 146.6 ± 15.1 Post: 155.1 ± 20.0 N: 7
2 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 133.6 ± 13.4 Post: 141.3 ± 20.2 N: 7
3 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 127.3 ± 12.3 Post: 130.9 ± 19.2 N: 7
4 minutes pot heart rate Pre: 122.9 ± 12.6 Post: 126.0 ± 17.1 N: 7
5 minutes pot heart rate Pre: 120.0 ± 11.9 Post: 126.1 ± 18.1 N: 7
6 minutes pot heart rate Pre: 120.6 ± 11.4 Post: 122.7 ± 18.7 N: 7
7 minutes pot heart rate Pre: 121.9 ± 10.0 Post: 122.6 ± 17.8 N: 7

Table 5. Heart Rate with pre and post anaerobic exercise of upper extremities in KAATSU Group
Resting heart rate
Pre: 109.6 ± 3.3 Post: 96.5 ± 11.6** N: 8
Instant heart rate
Pre: 188.3 ± 6.9 Post: 184.4 ± 5.0 N: 8
Maximum heart rate
Pre: 189.5 ± 7.3 Post: 185.0 ± 4.8 N: 8
1 minute post heart rate
Pre: 159.6 ± 12.4 Post: 159.6 ± 5.8 N: 8
2 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 137.5 ± 6.4 Post: 143.6 ± 7.2* N: 8
3 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 126.4 ± 7.2 Post: 133.9 ± 6.9* N: 8
4 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 123.0 ± 3.4 Post: 125.8 ± 7.2 N: 8
5 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 118.6 ± 5.2 Post: 121.0 ± 6.6 N: 8
6 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 117.8 ± 5.8 Post: 118.6 ± 5.7 N: 8
7 minutes post heart rate
Pre: 118.6 ± 10.0 Post: 117.4 ± 4.8 N: 8
P<0.01
P<0.05

Table 6. Heart Rate on anaerobic exercise of upper extremities in Control Group and KAATSU Group
Resting heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 14.29 ± 11.1
KAATSU Group pre/post: 13.13 ± 11.54 N: 8
Instant heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 5.57 ± 4.97
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.38 ± 7.15 N: 8
Maximum heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 6.14 ± 5.34
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.25 ± 5.90 N: 8
1 minute post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 7.71 ± 6.32
KAATSU Group pre/post: 14.00 ± 9.58 N: 8
2 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 7.71 ± 4.92
KAATSU Group pre/post: 11.38 ± 9.27 N: 8
3 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 9.29 ± 6.68
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.50 ± 8.14 N: 8
4 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 7.14 ± 3.34
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.50 ± 6.44 N: 8
5 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 6.86 ± 5.18
KAATSU Group pre/post: 8.50 ± 9.43 N: 8
6 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 6.00 ± 4.16
KAATSU Group pre/post: 10.00 ± 8.05 N: 8
7 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 6.29 ± 6.68
KAATSU Group pre/post: 8.63 ± 6.78 N: 8

Table 7. Heart Rate on pre and post anaerobic exercise of lower extremities in Control Group
Resting heart rate
pre: 111.9 ± 23.2 post: 101.7 ± 15.5 N: 7
Instant heart rate
pre: 191.0 ± 13.8 post: 187.0 ± 15.8 N: 7
Maximum heart rate
pre: 193.3 ± 14.3 post: 189.0 ± 15.4* N: 7
1 minute post heart rate
pre: 171.1 ± 16.9 post: 189.0 ± 15.4** N: 7
2 minutes post heart rate
pre: 158.7 ± 18.9 post: 145.7 ± 23.1* N: 7
3 minutes post heart rate
pre: 141.6 ± 17.4 post: 137.6 ± 20.5 N: 7
4 minutes post heart rate
pre: 138.4 ± 20.4 post: 126.3 ± 17.7 N: 7
5 minutes post heart rate
pre: 128.9 ± 18.0 post: 128.6 ± 14.3 N: 7
6 minutes post heart rate
pre: 127.4 ± 18.4 post: 122.3 ± 16.8 N: 7
7 minutes post heart
rate pre: 122.9 ± 17.6 post: 122.3 ± 14.9 N: 7
** P<0.01
* P<0.05

Table 8. Heart Rate on pre and post anaerobic exercise of lower extremities in KAATSU Group
Resting heart rate
pre: 103.8 ± 7.7 post: 99.0 ± 8.4 N: 8
Instant heart rate
pre: 185.4 ± 7.1 post: 183.9 ± 6.5 N: 8
Maximum heart rate
pre: 187.1 ± 6.3 post: 185.4 ± 6.4 N: 8
1 minute post heart rate
pre: 167.5 ± 12.3 post: 164.4 ± 8.2 N: 8
2 minutes post heart rate
pre: 151.4 ± 13.2 post: 148.4 ± 11.1 N: 8
3 minutes post heart rate
pre: 134.4 ± 9.8 post: 133.5 ± 9.6 N: 8
4 minutes post heart rate
pre: 126.9 ± 8.9 post: 125.0 ± 9.8 N: 8
5 minutes post heart rate
pre: 116.1 ± 12.8 post: 118.5 ± 10.0 N: 8
6 minutes post heart rate
pre: 112.5 ± 23.9 post: 105.8 ± 23.0 N: 8
7 minutes post heart rate
pre: 110.0 ± 21.4 post: 109.3 ± 16.9 N: 8

Table 9. Heart Rate on anaerobic exercise of lower extremities in Control Group and KAATSU Group
Resting heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 15.0 ± 7.37 N:7
KAATSU Group pre/post: 10.00 ± 5.4 N: 8
Instant heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 5.57 ± 3.05 N:7
KAATSU Group pre/post: 5.25 ± 3.96 N: 8
Maximum heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 6.71 ± 2.56 N: 7
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.63 ± 3.58 N: 8
1 minute post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 6.71 ± 2.56
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.63 ± 9.78 N: 8
2 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 14.14 ± 11.82
KAATSU Group pre/post: 11.00 ± 9.09 N: 8
3 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 8.57 ± 4.86
KAATSU Group pre/post: 11.38 ± 6.67 N: 8
4 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 11.43 ± 10.39
KAATSU Group pre/post: 9.38 ± 8.29 N: 8
5 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 5.94 ± 4.26
KAATSU Group pre/post: 7.13 ± 5.94 N: 8
6 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 41.54 ± 75.47
KAATSU Group pre/post: 12.25 ± 24.04 N: 8
7 minutes post heart rate
Control Group pre/post: 7.46 ± 5.55
KAATSU Group pre/post: 12.25 ± 11.56 N: 8

Table 10. Blood pressure on pre and post resistance training in Control Group
SBP (mmHg)
Pre: 125.6 ± 26.6
Post: 134.1 ± 17.1 N: 7
DBP (mmHg)
Pre: 85.3 ± 17.3
Post: 92.9 ± 11.9 N: 7

Table 11. Blood pressure on pre and post resistance training in KAATSU Group
SBP (mmHg)
Pre: 128.12 ± 8.008
Post: 118.25 ± 4.334** N: 8
DBP (mmHg)
Pre: 85 ± 5.398
Post: 79.75 ± 7.246 N: 8
** P<0.01

Table 12. Blood pressure compared with Control Group and KAATSU Group
SBP (mmHg)
Control Group
pre/post: 9.43 ± 14.29 N: 7
KAATSU Group
pre/post: 13.29 ± 12.84 N: 8
DBP (mmHg)
Control Group
pre/post: 8.14 ± 8.75 N: 7
KAATU Group
pre/post: 12.00 ± 14.61 N: 8

Table 13. ET, NO and VEGF on pre and post resistance training
ET
pre: 40.08 ± 21.24
post: 46.23 ± 17.71 N: 7
NO
pre: 16.61 ± 7.12
post: 17.18 ± 7.52 N: 7
VEGF:
39.08 ± 13.48
post: 48.49 ± 13.58 N: 7

Table 14. ET, NO and VEGF on pre and post KAATSU training
ET
pre: 41.41 ± 22.37
post: 42.32 ± 18.83 N: 8
NO
pre: 18.83 ± 16.14
post: 21.00 ± 12.89 N: 8
VEGF:
pre: 49.77 ± 18.47
post: 65.19 ± 29.80* N: 8

Table 15. Mitochondrial indexes on pre and post resistance training
SOD
pre: 109.586 ± 52.497
post: 91.249 ± 48.890 N: 7
LPL
pre: 203.542 ± 121.250
post: 221.320 ± 161.551 N: 7
AMPK
pre: 82.178 ± 55.754
post: 73.162 ± 54.077 N: 7
NO
pre: 16.61 ± 7.12
post: 17.18 ± 7.52 N: 7
PDK
pre: 47.685 ± 47.133
post: 50.274 ± 52.196 N: 7

Table 16. Mitochondrial indexes on pre and post KAATSU training
SOD
pre: 162.943 ± 62.033
post: 156.479 ± 81.737 N: 8
LPL
pre: 112.381 ± 36.801
post: 286.428 ± 151.234** N: 8
AMPK
pre: 119.722 ± 90.634
post: 118.901 ± 83.733 N: 8
NO
pre: 18.83 ± 16.14
post: 21.00 ± 12.80 N: 8
PDK
pre: 9.177 ± 5.789
post: 57.646 ± 50.624* N: 8

Table 17. Mitochondrial indexes on pre and post training in Control Group and KAATSU Group
SOD
Control Group
pre/post: 140.045 ± 86.359 N: 7
KAATSU
pre/post: 83.372 ± 50.450 N: 8
LPL Control Group
pre: 286.428 ± 151.234
N: 7
KAATSU
pre/post: 221.320 ± 161.551 N: 8
AMPK
Control Group
pre: 118.901 ± 83.733 N: 7
KAATSU
pre/post: 73.162 ± 54.077 N: 8
PDK Control Group
pre: 57.646 ± 50.624
KAATSU pre/post: 50.274 ± 52.196 N: 8

Table 18. TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and BS on pre and post resistance training
TC
pre: 4.679 ± 0.628
post: 5.541 ± 1.035**
N: 7
TG
pre: 1.429 ± 0.839
post: 2.240 ± 2.316
N: 7
HDL-C
pre: 1.264 ± 0.213
post: 1.476 ± 0.400*
N: 7
LDL-C
pre: 2.573 ± 0.641
post: 3.633 ± 1.156**
N: 7
BS
pre: 5.286 ± 0.77
post: 6.086 ± 2.294
N: 7

Table 19. TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and BS on pre and post KAATSU training
TC
pre: 4.743 ± 0.688
post: 4.671 ± 0.561
N: 8
TG
pre: 2.895 ± 3.065
post: 2.355 ± 1.570
N: 8
HDL-C
pre: 1.474 ± 0.456
post: 1.291 ± 0.306
N: 8
LDL-C
pre: 2.421 ± 0.416
post: 3.014 ± 0.681**
N: 8
BS

pre: 5.188 ± 0.491
post: 5.225 ± 0.597
N: 8
** P<0.01>

Table 20. TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and BS on post Control Group and KAATSU Group
TC Control
pre/post: 5.541 ± 1.035
KAATSU pre/post: 4.671 ± 0.561**
N: 8
TG Control
pre/post: 2.240 ± 2.316
KAATSU pre/post: 2.355 ± 1.570
N: 8
HDL-C Control
pre/post: 1.476 ± 0.400
KAATSU pre/post: 1.291 ± 0.306
N: 8
LDL-C Control
pre/post: 3.633 ± 1.156
KAATSU pre/post: 3.014 ± 0.681
N: 8
BS Control
pre/post: 6.086 ± 2.294
KAATSU pre/post: 5.225 ± 0.597 N: 8
** P<0.01>

Table 40. Girth indexes on pre and post resistance training
Flexed upper arm girth
pre: 33.057 ± 3.249
post: 33.343 ± 3.227
N: 7
Relaxed upper arm girth
pre: 30.800 ± 3.800
post: 31.157 ± 4.197
N: 7
Forearm girth
pre: 28.171 ± 1.952
post: 27.914 ± 1.869
N: 7
Thigh girth
pre: 58.057 ± 4.770
post: 59.000 ± 5.099
N: 7
Calf girth
pre: 39.643 ± 3.181
post: 38.700 ± 3.536*
N: 7
** P<0.01>
* P<0.05

Table 40. Girth indexes on pre and post KAATSU training
Flexed upper arm girth
pre: 33.750 ± 2.596
post: 33.813 ± 2.521
N: 8
Relaxed upper arm girth
pre: 31.775 ± 3.050
post: 32.425 ± 2.846*
N: 8
Forearm girth
pre: 27.088 ± 1.776
post: 27.475 ± 2.006
N: 8
Thigh girth
pre: 56.125 ± 3.712
post: 57.350 ± 3.724**
N: 8
Calf girth
pre: 38.088 ± 2.594
post: 38.238 ± 2.441
N: 8
** P<0.01
* P<0.05

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